What are the parts of the cornea?
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Although the cornea may look clear and seem to lack substance, it is a highly organized tissue. Unlike most tissues in the body, the cornea contains no blood vessels to nourish or protect it against infection. Instead, the cornea receives its nourishment from tears and the aqueous humor (a fluid in the front part of the eye that lies behind the cornea).
The tissues of the cornea are arranged in three basic layers, with two thinner layers, or membranes, between them. Each of these five layers has an important function. These layers are:
Epithelium: The epithelium is the cornea’s outermost layer. Its primary functions are to block the passage into the eye of foreign material, such as dust, water, and bacteria; and to provide a smooth surface to absorb oxygen and nutrients from tears, which are then distributed to the other layers of the cornea. The epithelium is filled with thousands of tiny nerve endings, which is why your eye may hurt when it is rubbed or scratched. The part of the epithelium that epithelial cells anchor and organize themselves to is called the basement membrane.
Bowman’s membrane: The next layer behind the basement membrane of the epithelium is a transparent film of tissue called Bowman’s layer, composed of protein fibers called collagen. If injured, Bowman’s layer can form a scar as it heals. If these scars are large and centrally located, they may cause vision loss.
Stroma: Behind Bowman’s layer is the stroma, which is the thickest layer of the cornea. It is composed primarily of water and collagen. Collagen gives the cornea its strength, elasticity, and form. The unique shape, arrangement, and spacing of collagen proteins are essential in producing the cornea’s light-conducting transparency.
Descemet’s Membrane: Behind the stroma is Descemet’s membrane, a thin but strong film of tissue that serves as a protective barrier against infection and injuries. Descemet’s membrane is composed of collagen fibers that are different from those of the stroma, and are made by cells in the endothelial layer of the cornea. Descemet’s membrane repairs itself easily after injury.
Endothelium: The endothelium is the thin, innermost layer of the cornea. Endothelial cells are important in keeping the cornea clear. Normally, fluid leaks slowly from inside the eye into the stroma. The endothelium’s primary task is to pump this excess fluid out of the stroma. Without this pumping action, the stroma would swell with water and become thick and opaque. In a healthy eye, a perfect balance is maintained between the fluid moving into the cornea and the fluid pumping out of the cornea. Unlike the cells in Descemet’s membrane, endothelial cells that have been destroyed by disease or trauma are not repaired or replaced by the body.
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